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保护生物多样性及生态系统的成本惊人

作者: 发布于:2020-12-09 08:02
Somewhere between $103 billion and $895 billion a year – that is how much funding will be needed to "bend the curve" on global nature loss, according to several recent estimates.   最近的几份预算研讨显现,要想改变全球生态丢失的曲线,每年的花费将到达1030亿至8950亿美元。   Campaigners and academics have been striving to convince governments and the private sector1 that the current loss of nature – dubbed2 by scientists the "sixth mass extinction3" – poses a threat not just to species and ecosystems4, but also to economies.   Now, an expert panel convened5 by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has analyzed6 various estimates of the costs and benefits of conserving7 nature. The analysis is part of work surrounding international negotiations8 on a new deal for nature, which will be agreed in Kunming, China, in May 2021.   New targets under discussion would see areas protected for nature on both land and sea increased from 17% to at least 30%. The new goals will replace the Aichi targets agreed in 2010, which the CBD recently confirmed had mostly failed.   The lower funding range, of $103-178 billion, is based only on investments in expanding protected areas, the panel noted9.   The larger range, of $631 billion to $895 billion, takes into account the cost of making the agricultural, fishery and forestry10 sectors11 sustainable, conserving biodiversity in urban and coastal12 areas, managing invasive species, and protecting urban water quality – all of which currently drive biodiversity loss.   Despite differing methodologies, the CBD expert panel noted that these estimates all reach the same conclusion: investment must increase substantially from current levels.   The panel also stressed that continuing on current trajectories13 of nature destruction will lead to significant global economic costs. It pointed14 to an analysis by campaign group WWF that estimates the loss of "services" provided by nature, such as crop pollination15 and clean water supply, at nearly $500 billion a year. Investing to protect nature would save money in the longer term by reducing the amount needed to tackle problems caused by losing these services, it said.
1 sector      n.部分,部分;防护地段,防区;扇形 参阅例句:
  • The export sector will aid the economic recovery. 出口工业将促进经济复苏。
  • The enemy have attacked the British sector.敌人已进攻英国防区。
2 dubbed      v.给…起绰号( dub的过去式和过去分词 );把…称为;配音;仿制 参阅例句:
  • Mathematics was once dubbed the handmaiden of the sciences. 数学曾一度被视为各门科学的根底。
  • Is the movie dubbed or does it have subtitles? 这部电影是配音的仍是打字幕的? 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 extinction      n.平息,消亡,消除,灭绝,绝种 参阅例句:
  • The plant is now in danger of extinction.这种植物现在有绝种的风险。
  • The island's way of life is doomed to extinction.这个岛上的生活方式注定要消失。
4 ecosystems      n.生态系统( ecosystem的名词复数 ) 参阅例句:
  • There are highly sensitive and delicately balanced ecosystems in the forest. 森林里有高度活络、活络平衡的各种生态系统。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Madagascar's ecosystems range from rainforest to semi-desert. 马达加斯加生态系统类型多样,从雨林到半荒漠等不胜枚举。 来自辞典例句
5 convened      举行( convene的过去式 ); 招集; (为正式会议而)调集; 调集 参阅例句:
  • The chairman convened the committee to put the issue to a vote. 主席招集委员们开会对这个问题进行表决。
  • The governor convened his troops to put down the revolt. 总督招集他的部队去打压暴乱。
6 analyzed      v.剖析( analyze的过去式和过去分词 );分化;解说;对…进行心思剖析 参阅例句:
  • The doctors analyzed the blood sample for anemia. 医师们剖析了贫血的血样。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The young man did not analyze the process of his captivation and enrapturement, for love to him was a mystery and could not be analyzed. 这年轻人没有剖析自己迷惑著迷的进程,由于对他来说,爱是个不行剖析的迷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 conserving      v.维护,保藏,保存( conserve的现在分词 ) 参阅例句:
  • Contour planning with or without terracing is effective in conserving both soil and moisture. 顺等高线栽植,不管做或不做梯田关于坚持水土都能有用。 来自辞典例句
  • Economic savings, consistent with a conserving society and the public philosophy. 经济节省,契合创立节省型社会的公共理念。 来自互联网
8 negotiations      洽谈( negotiation的名词复数 ); 商洽; 完结(难事); 经过 参阅例句:
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的商洽
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 商洽未能达到任何退让。
9 noted      adj.闻名的,闻名的 参阅例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精巧而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
10 forestry      n.森林学;林业 参阅例句:
  • At present, the Chinese forestry is being at a significant transforming period. 当时, 我国的林业正处于一个严重的转机时期。
  • Anhua is one of the key forestry counties in Hunan province. 安化县是湖南省要点林区县之一。
11 sectors      n.部分( sector的名词复数 );范畴;防护区域;扇形 参阅例句:
  • Berlin was divided into four sectors after the war. 战后柏林分成了4 个区。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Industry and agriculture are the two important sectors of the national economy. 工业和农业是国民经济的两个重要部分。 来自《现代汉英归纳大词典》
12 coastal      adj.海岸的,滨海的,沿岸的 参阅例句:
  • The ocean waves are slowly eating away the coastal rocks.大海的波涛慢慢地腐蚀着岸边的岩石。
  • This country will fortify the coastal areas.该国将加强滨海区域的防护。
13 trajectories      n.弹道( trajectory的名词复数 );轨迹;轨线;常角轨迹 参阅例句:
  • To answer this question, we need to plot trajectories of principal stresses. 为了答复这个问题,咱们尚须画出主应力迹线图。 来自辞典例句
  • In the space program the theory is used to determine spaceship trajectories. 在空间方案中,这个理论用于确认飞船的轨迹。 来自辞典例句
14 pointed      adj.尖的,开门见山的 参阅例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得十分尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想经过对达茨伍德夫人提出开门见山的约请向她的哥哥表示出来。
15 pollination      n.授粉 参阅例句:
  • The flowers get pollination by insects.这些花经过昆虫授粉。
  • Without sufficient pollination,the growth of the corn is stunted.没有得到足够的授粉,谷物的长势就会受阻。


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